A very interesting article in the New York Times this week on how bad even a single concussion is to teenagers. "In this case, the scientists concentrated on all Swedes born between 1973 and 1985 and looked for those who had experienced a head injury of some kind before the age of 25. More than 104,000 people qualified. The researchers pulled data about these people for 40 years or until someone had either died or emigrated from Sweden. For each participant, the researchers also compiled comparable medical and other records for a sibling who had never been given a diagnosis of a head injury and compared outcomes both between family members and against the full population of the country. The results were discomfiting. Young people who had experienced a single diagnosed concussion — which the researchers categorized as a mild traumatic brain injury — were much more likely than the nation’s general population and than their own siblings to be receiving medical disability payments as adults. They also were significantly more likely to have sought mental health care and much less likely to have graduated from high school or to have attended college than their uninjured brother or sister. And they were about twice as likely as an uninjured sibling to die prematurely. The possibility of lingering physical or psychological problems during adulthood rose precipitously, the researchers found, if someone had experienced more than one concussion while young, or if his or her brain injury had been more severe than a concussion. The outcomes also generally were worse if someone had experienced head trauma after the age of 15, probably because the brain is less resilient than in earlier childhood, Dr. Fazel says. (The researchers did not quantify the causes of the injuries in this study, but past research shows that in the very young, he says, brain injuries usually result from falls, with sports becoming the primary cause in teenagers, and auto accidents the main cause among young adults." Read more http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/10/05/well/move/a-single-concussion-may-have-lasting-impact.html I'm sure insurance company's will force big changes in amature contact sports in the future.